In 2006, a clinician claimed that: “Unfortunately, the prevailing psychiatric view of BDSM remains a negative one: These sexual practices are usually considered paraphilias, i.e., de facto evidence of pathology”. Six years, a meta-analysis out of the UK called ”A descriptive review of research relating to sadomasochism: Considerations for clinical practice” was published in Deviant Behavior. Of note, researchers say empirical information:
…is inconsistent with a number of aspects of the traditional theories of SM. The validity of conceptualizing the majority of SM practitioners as being psychologically unwell is questioned and the negative psychological impact that these traditional theories can have on SM practitioners is noted.